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Optimization simulations to estimate maximum brine injection rates in the Illinois Basin

Metadata Updated: July 6, 2024

We developed a methodology to estimate maximum brine injection rates in subsurface formations across wide geographic areas using inverse modeling-based optimization techniques. We first defined geographic areas where groundwater was too saline to meet the standard for drinking water and where sufficient confining units existed above and below the injection layers. We then assumed concurrent brine injection into a system of wells on a consistent 25 km x 25 km spacing across the entire modeled area. Taking advantage of symmetry, we represented each 25 km x 25 km injection area as a 12.5 km-long one-dimensional radial model, divided into 100 logarithmically-sized grid blocks. A single layer of grid blocks was used because homogenous porous media were assumed. Brine injection was simulated into the leftmost (innner) grid block, and the injection rate was automatically adjusted to meet a maximum pressure buildup to 80% of the fracturing pressure, estimated as the least principal stress, at the injection location. A secondary constraint of 1 bar maximum pressure increase at the right-most (far-field boundary) grid block after 50 years of injection was applied. We demonstrated this method on three stratigraphic layers that overlie the Mt. Simon Sandstone (MSS) in the Illinois Basin, as well as in the MSS itself, because the MSS is a well-known CO2 injection target with a large estimated CO2 storage capacity. CO2 storage in the MSS could be optimized by extracting brine from that formation and injecting it elsewhere, so the brine injection rates estimated with the models contained herein could help to refine CO2 storage capacity estimates.

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Public: This dataset is intended for public access and use. License: No license information was provided. If this work was prepared by an officer or employee of the United States government as part of that person's official duties it is considered a U.S. Government Work.

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Metadata Created Date June 1, 2023
Metadata Updated Date July 6, 2024

Metadata Source

Harvested from DOI EDI

Additional Metadata

Resource Type Dataset
Metadata Created Date June 1, 2023
Metadata Updated Date July 6, 2024
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Identifier USGS:6140d759d34e1449c5d60077
Data Last Modified 20221202
Category geospatial
Public Access Level public
Bureau Code 010:12
Metadata Context
Metadata Catalog ID
Schema Version
Catalog Describedby
Harvest Object Id 744ee8c9-f9e2-4562-ab7c-ab9fdbb6cb38
Harvest Source Id 52bfcc16-6e15-478f-809a-b1bc76f1aeda
Harvest Source Title DOI EDI
Metadata Type geospatial
Old Spatial -90.802014510004,37.32825227,-84.43471619,41.36391474
Publisher Hierarchy White House > U.S. Department of the Interior > U.S. Geological Survey
Source Datajson Identifier True
Source Hash 7e36bf29629c6ad6d3f26d1396245bab8808a6add360f66593e921765b13dd1a
Source Schema Version 1.1
Spatial {"type": "Polygon", "coordinates": -90.802014510004, 37.32825227, -90.802014510004, 41.36391474, -84.43471619, 41.36391474, -84.43471619, 37.32825227, -90.802014510004, 37.32825227}

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