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Data From: Assessing variability of corn and soybean yields in central Iowa using high spatiotemporal resolution multi-satellite imagery

Metadata Updated: September 21, 2023

This dataset includes daily two-band Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2) at 30-m resolution over a Landsat scene (path 26 and row 31) in central Iowa. Fourteen years of daily EVI2 from 2001 to 2015 (except 2012) were generated through fusing and interpolating Landsat-MODIS data. Landsat surface reflectances were order and used in this study. Mostly clear Landsat images from each year were chosen to pair with MODIS images acquired from the same day to generate daily Landsat-MODIS surface reflectance using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM). Partially clear Landsat images were also used in generating the smoothed and gap-filled daily VI time-series. All available Landsat data including Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) were used in this study. The MODIS data products were downloaded and processed. These include the daily surface reflectance at both 250m (MOD09GQ) and 500m (MOD09GA) resolution, the MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) parameters at 500m resolution, and the MODIS land cover types at 500m resolution (MCD12Q1). They were used to generated daily nadir BRDF-adjusted reflectance (NBAR) at 250m resolution for fusing with Landsat. The Landsat-MODIS data fusion results for 2001-2014 were generated from a previous study (Gao et al, 2017; doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2016.11.004). Data fusion results for 2015 were generated using Landsat 8 OLI images from day 194, 226, 258 and 338 in this study. Cloud masks were extracted from Landsat and MODIS QA layers and were used to exclude cloud, cloud shadow and snow pixels. Since Landsat 5 TM operational imaging ended in November 2011 and Landsat 8 OLI has not been launched until February 2013, Landsat 7 ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off images are the only available Landsat data. For this reason, 2012 was not included. Due to the cloud contamination in the Landsat and MODIS images, the fused Landsat-MODIS results still have invalid values or gaps. To fill these gaps, a modified Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter approach was built and applied to smooth and gap-fill EVI2. The SG filter is a moving fitting approach. Each point is smoothed using the value computed from the polynomial function fit to the observations within the moving window. The program removes spike points if the fitting errors are larger than the predefined threshold (default 3 standard deviation). The modified SG filter allows us to retain small variations but also fill large gaps in an unevenly distributed time-series EVI2. Daily EVI2 files are saved in one tar file per year. Each tar file contains a binary image file and a text header file that can be displayed in the ENVI software. The binary image file has the dimension of 7201 lines by 8061 samples by 365 days and is saved in BIP (band interleaved by pixel) format. EVI2 data are saved in 4-byte float number. The text header file contains necessary information including projection and geolocation. Daily EVI2 file is named as "flexfit_evi2.026031.yyyy.bin", where "026031" refers to the Landsat path and row, and yyyy represents year and ranges from 2001-2015.

Access & Use Information

Public: This dataset is intended for public access and use. License: us-pd

Downloads & Resources


Metadata Created Date November 10, 2020
Metadata Updated Date September 21, 2023
Data Update Frequency R/P1D

Metadata Source

Harvested from USDA JSON

Additional Metadata

Resource Type Dataset
Metadata Created Date November 10, 2020
Metadata Updated Date September 21, 2023
Publisher Agricultural Research Service
Identifier 4f541166-34d9-4504-9cd7-1275ba52223c
Data Last Modified 2023-08-25
Public Access Level public
Data Update Frequency R/P1D
Bureau Code 005:18
Metadata Context
Schema Version
Catalog Describedby
Harvest Object Id 1163a1e3-cfba-4274-a0b2-ec619fb47825
Harvest Source Id d3fafa34-0cb9-48f1-ab1d-5b5fdc783806
Harvest Source Title USDA JSON
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Program Code 005:040
Source Datajson Identifier True
Source Hash ea26241178bfa69e3bd6121890801b654506c2f4d984032e23909e6c485f6f85
Source Schema Version 1.1
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