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U.S. Conterminous Wall-to-Wall Anthropogenic Land Use Trends (NWALT), 1974-2012

Metadata Updated: June 19, 2024

This dataset provides a U.S. national 60-m, 19-class mapping of anthropogenic land uses for five time periods: 1974-1982-1992-2002-2012. The 2012 dataset is based on a slightly modified version of the National Land Cover Database 2011 (NLCD 2011) that was recoded to a schema of land uses, and mapped back in time to develop datasets for the four earlier eras. The time periods coincide with years in which U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Census of Agriculture data were collected. Changes are derived from

        (a) known changes in water bodies from reservoir construction or removal, 
        (b) housing unit density changes, 
        (c) regional mining/extraction trends, 
        (d) for 1999-2012, timber and forestry activity based on US Geological Survey (USGS) Landfire data, 
        (e) county-level USDA Census of Agriculture change in cultivated land, and 
        (f) establishment dates of major conservation areas.

The data are compared to several other published studies and datasets as validation. Caveats are provided about limitations of the data for some classes. The work was completed as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program and termed the NAWQA Wall-to-Wall Anthropogenic Land Use Trends (NWALT) dataset, with anticipation of five year updates for future versions. The associated datasets include five 60-m geospatial rasters showing anthropogenic land use from 1974-2012 and 14 rasters showing the extent of timber clear-cutting and harvest for 1999-2012.
The full report for the product is provided as USGS Data Series 2015-948, at

Access & Use Information

Public: This dataset is intended for public access and use. License: No license information was provided. If this work was prepared by an officer or employee of the United States government as part of that person's official duties it is considered a U.S. Government Work.

Downloads & Resources


Metadata Created Date June 1, 2023
Metadata Updated Date June 19, 2024

Metadata Source

Harvested from DOI EDI

Additional Metadata

Resource Type Dataset
Metadata Created Date June 1, 2023
Metadata Updated Date June 19, 2024
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Identifier USGS:4d548454-8801-46d6-a4be-8a6e3a64684f
Data Last Modified 20201117
Category geospatial
Public Access Level public
Bureau Code 010:12
Metadata Context
Metadata Catalog ID
Schema Version
Catalog Describedby
Harvest Object Id 6eba069d-4b57-454b-9710-b58995736527
Harvest Source Id 52bfcc16-6e15-478f-809a-b1bc76f1aeda
Harvest Source Title DOI EDI
Metadata Type geospatial
Old Spatial -130.232828,21.742308,-63.672192,52.877264
Publisher Hierarchy White House > U.S. Department of the Interior > U.S. Geological Survey
Source Datajson Identifier True
Source Hash eb3292fef1c65e8cc3f48be65ce5d58e77d41ae0060663bf9220a4335884be40
Source Schema Version 1.1
Spatial {"type": "Polygon", "coordinates": -130.232828, 21.742308, -130.232828, 52.877264, -63.672192, 52.877264, -63.672192, 21.742308, -130.232828, 21.742308}

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