Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Skip to content

International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Release 3.1 Final, Individual Reports in the International Maritime Meteorological Archive Format version 1 (IMMA1)

Metadata Updated: September 19, 2023

This dataset, the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS), is the most widely-used freely available collection of surface marine observations, with over 455 million individual marine reports spanning 1662-2014-each containing the observations and metadata reported from a given ship, buoy, coastal platform, or oceanographic instrument, providing data for the construction of gridded analyses of sea surface temperature, estimates of air-sea interaction and other meteorological variables. ICOADS observations are assimilated into all major atmospheric, oceanic and coupled reanalyses, further widening its impact. R3, therefore includes changes designed to enable the effective exchange of information describing data quality between ICOADS, reanalysis centres, data set developers, scientists, and the public. These user-driven innovations include the assignment of a unique identifier (UID) to each marine report to enable tracing of observations, linking with reports and improved data sharing. Other revisions and extensions of the ICOADS' International Maritime Meteorological Archive (IMMA) common data format incorporate new near-surface oceanographic data elements and cloud parameters. Many new input data sources have been assembled, and updates and improvements to existing data sources, or removal of erroneous data, made.

This dataset includes one product of the official ICOADS Release 3.1 dataset: 'Final' R3.1, with duplicates removed, where all reports have been compared for matching dates, id's and elements observed and the best duplicate retained as the final report. This release does not include the 'Total' version that accompanies the 3.0 release. This version marks the first time multi-line linked reports (Main plus Subsidiary) in IMMA1 data format have been used. The Subsidiary records are linked to the Main records through replication of the unique identification number (UID) and expand the IMMA1 capability to hold ICOADS value-added data (Ivad) and Reanalysis feedback quality control (Rean-qc) information. Release 3.1 provides data not included in the previous version, R3.0: 1) ICOADS value-added data (Ivad): Intended to store adjusted fields (e.g. bias corrected temperatures, etc), whereas the unadjusted data will continue to be stored in the Core and other IMMA1 attachments and 2) Reanalysis feedback quality control (Rean-qc): Intended to store selected QC and feedback information on the ICOADS observations used as input, as made available from reanalysis projects.

Access & Use Information

License: No license information was provided. If this work was prepared by an officer or employee of the United States government as part of that person's official duties it is considered a U.S. Government Work.

Downloads & Resources

Dates

Metadata Date June 23, 2023
Metadata Created Date October 28, 2022
Metadata Updated Date September 19, 2023
Reference Date(s) September 15, 2019 (publication), October 1, 2017 (creation)
Frequency Of Update irregular

Metadata Source

Harvested from ncdc

Graphic Preview

ICOADS logo

Additional Metadata

Resource Type Dataset
Metadata Date June 23, 2023
Metadata Created Date October 28, 2022
Metadata Updated Date September 19, 2023
Reference Date(s) September 15, 2019 (publication), October 1, 2017 (creation)
Responsible Party DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce (Point of Contact)
Contact Email
Guid gov.noaa.ncdc:C01595
Access Constraints Cite as: National Centers for Environmental Information; Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado; Research Data Archive, Computational and Information Systems Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research; NERC National Oceanography Centre, Natural Environment Research Council, United Kingdom; Met Office, Ministry of Defence, United Kingdom; Deutscher Wetterdienst (German Meteorological Service), Germany; University of Washington, Department of Atmospheric Science; Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies, Florida State University (2019): International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Release 3.1 Final, Individual Reports in the International Maritime Meteorological Archive Format version 1 (IMMA1). NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). doi:10.25921/8mgh-j620. [access date]., Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives., Use liability: NOAA and NCEI cannot provide any warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of furnished data. Users assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data. The user is responsible for the results of any application of this data for other than its intended purpose.
Bbox East Long 180.0
Bbox North Lat 90.0
Bbox South Lat -90.0
Bbox West Long -180.0
Coupled Resource
Frequency Of Update irregular
Graphic Preview Description ICOADS logo
Graphic Preview File https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/images/Logo_ICOADS_single.png
Graphic Preview Type PNG
Harvest Object Id 6d59bff8-2960-4bd9-844f-d271126e0096
Harvest Source Id 2cb3ef77-1683-4c2a-9119-dc65e50917c6
Harvest Source Title ncdc
Licence No bias corrections applied to any reports.
Lineage This dataset includes one product of the official ICOADS Release 3.1 dataset: 'Final' R3.1, with duplicates removed, where all reports have been compared for matching dates, id's and elements observed and the best duplicate retained as the final report. This release does not include the 'Total' version that accompanies the 3.0 release.
Metadata Language eng; USA
Metadata Type geospatial
Old Spatial {"type": "Polygon", "coordinates": [[[-180.0, -90.0], [180.0, -90.0], [180.0, 90.0], [-180.0, 90.0], [-180.0, -90.0]]]}
Progress completed
Spatial Data Service Type
Spatial Reference System
Spatial Harvester True
Temporal Extent Begin 1662-10
Temporal Extent End 2014-12

Didn't find what you're looking for? Suggest a dataset here.