Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Skip to content

Avian botulism type E in waterbirds of Lake Michigan, 2010-2013

Metadata Updated: October 29, 2023

During 2010 to 2013, waterbird mortality surveillance programs used a shared protocol for shoreline walking surveys performed June to November at three areas in northern Lake Michigan. In 2010 and 2012, 1244 total carcasses (0.8 dead bird/km walked) and 2399 total carcasses (1.2 dead birds/km walked), respectively, were detected. Fewer carcasses were detected in 2011 (353 total carcasses, 0.2 dead bird/km walked) and 2013 (451 total carcasses, 0.3 dead bird/km walked). During 3 years, peak detection of carcasses occurred in October and involved primarily migratory diving and fish-eating birds, including long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis; 2010), common loons (Gavia immer; 2012), and red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator; 2013). In 2011, peak detection of carcasses occurred in August and consisted primarily of summer residents such as gulls (Larus spp.) and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). A subset of fresh carcasses was collected throughout each year of the study and tested for botulinum neurotoxin type E (Botulinum neurotoxin type E ). Sixty-one percent of carcasses (57/94) and 10 of 11 species collected throughout the sampling season tested positive for Botulinum neurotoxin type E , suggesting avian botulism type E was a major cause of death for both resident and migratory birds in Lake Michigan. The variety of avian species affected by botulism type E throughout the summer and fall during all 4 years of coordinated surveillance also suggests multiple routes for bird exposure to Botulinum neurotoxin type E in Lake Michigan.

Access & Use Information

Public: This dataset is intended for public access and use. License: No license information was provided. If this work was prepared by an officer or employee of the United States government as part of that person's official duties it is considered a U.S. Government Work.

Downloads & Resources


Metadata Created Date June 1, 2023
Metadata Updated Date October 29, 2023

Metadata Source

Harvested from DOI EDI

Additional Metadata

Resource Type Dataset
Metadata Created Date June 1, 2023
Metadata Updated Date October 29, 2023
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Identifier USGS:5633bfb9e4b048076347f028
Data Last Modified 20201016
Category geospatial
Public Access Level public
Bureau Code 010:12
Metadata Context
Metadata Catalog ID
Schema Version
Catalog Describedby
Harvest Object Id 5dacbe1e-1b9b-4e55-b574-c8a4f7438360
Harvest Source Id 52bfcc16-6e15-478f-809a-b1bc76f1aeda
Harvest Source Title DOI EDI
Metadata Type geospatial
Old Spatial -88.247680664051,44.110939829689,-84.677124023569,46.217549030468
Publisher Hierarchy White House > U.S. Department of the Interior > U.S. Geological Survey
Source Datajson Identifier True
Source Hash 114389537d9e4017063f0e412dcfeb23106464b377a347ef4e0ac742411de47e
Source Schema Version 1.1
Spatial {"type": "Polygon", "coordinates": -88.247680664051, 44.110939829689, -88.247680664051, 46.217549030468, -84.677124023569, 46.217549030468, -84.677124023569, 44.110939829689, -88.247680664051, 44.110939829689}

Didn't find what you're looking for? Suggest a dataset here.