Hudson River Estuary Sediment Environment


Identification Information:
Citation:
Citation Information:
Originator: Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO)
Publication Date: 2005
Title: Hudson River Estuary Sediment Environment
Geospatial Data Presentation Form: digital vector data
Online Linkage: http://cugir.mannlib.cornell.edu/bucketinfo.jsp?id=7885
Description:
Abstract: This dataset provides sedimentary environments of the Hudson River Estuary from Verrazano Narrows Bridge to Troy. Areas of the Hudson River shallower than 4 meters have not been surveyed and sampled completely. The sedimentary environment interpretation is based on the evaluation of Chirp sub-bottom acoustic profiler data in conjunction with acoustic backscatter and bathymetry data. It is subdivided into depositional, erosional, and dynamic classes that are further subdivided, depending on the details identified in the sub-bottom data, or because of their location. A more complete description of this interpretation can be found in Nitsche et al. (2004) and Nitsche et al. (2005)
Purpose: In 1996, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) initiated an effort to map the benthic habitat of the Hudson River Estuary as part of a larger Hudson River Action Plan. This project includes extensive mapping using sidescan sonar, sub-bottom profiling, single and multi-beam bathymetric sonars, as well as collecting ground truth data with sediment cores, grab samples, and sediment profiling imagery (SPI). The goal of the project is the creation of a comprehensive data set that includes detailed interpretive maps of the physical environment of the floor of the estuary.  An overview of the first phase of the benthic mapping project can be found in Bell et al. (2006)
Supplemental Information: See also <http://benthic.info> More extensive discussion of the methods and interpretation can be found in the following publications: Bell, R.E., et al., 2006. "Benthic habitat mapping in the Hudson River Estuary", in The Hudson River Estuary (Levinton and Waldman, eds.), Cambridge Univ Press., pp. 51-64. // Carbotte, S.M., et al., 2004. Environmental change and oyster colonization within the Hudson River estuary linked to Holocene climate. Geo-Marine Letters 24: 212-224. // McHugh, C.M.G., et al., 2004. Spatial variations in a condensed interval between estuarine and open marine settings: Holocene Hudson River Estuary and adjacent continental shelf. Geology 32(2): 169-172. // Nitsche, F.O., et al., 2004. Process-related classification of acoustic data from the Hudson River Estuary. Marine Geology 209(1-4): 131-145. // Nitsche, F.O. et. al., 2005. Integrative acoustic mapping reveals Hudson River sediment processes and habitats. EOS 86(24): 225. // Nitsche, F.O. et al., 2005. "A seabed classification approach based on multiple acoustic sensors in the Hudson River Estuary", in High Resolution Morphodynamics and Sedimentary Evolution of Estuaries (FitzGerald and Knight, eds.), Springer, pp. 33-55. // Pekar, S.F., et al., 2004. Estuarine processes and their stratigraphic record: paleosalinity and sedimentation changes in the Hudson Estuary (North America). Marine Geology 209(1-4): 113-129. // Strayer, D.L., et al., 2006. Using geophysical information to define benthic habitats in a large river. Freshwater Biology 51: 25-38.
Time Period of Content:
Time Period Information:
Range of Dates/Times:
Beginning Date: 1998
Ending Date: 2004
Currentness Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance and Update Frequency: None planned
Spatial Domain:
Bounding Coordinates:
West Bounding Coordinate: -74.107921
East Bounding Coordinate: -73.684866
North Bounding Coordinate: 42.755796
South Bounding Coordinate: 40.599610
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme Keyword Thesaurus: None
Theme Keyword: estuary
Theme Keyword: sediments
Theme:
Theme Keyword Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme Keyword: geology
Theme Keyword: environment
Theme Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme Keyword: oceans
Place:
Place Keyword Thesaurus: LCSH
Place Keyword: Hudson River (N.Y. and N.J.)
Place Keyword: Hudson River Estuary (N.Y. and N.J.)
Access Constraints: none
Use Constraints: none
Point of Contact:
Contact Information:
Contact Person Primary:
Contact Person: John Ladd
Contact Organization: Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve, Hudson River Estuary Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
Contact Position: Benthic Mapping Coordinator
Contact Address:
Address Type: mailing and physical
Address: Bard College Field Station
City: Annandale
State or Province: New York
Postal Code: 12504
Country: USA
Contact Voice Telephone: 845-758-7010
Contact Electronic Mail Address: jxladd@gw.dec.state.ny.us
Data Quality Information:
Attribute Value Accuracy Information:
Attribute Accuracy Report: All sediment grab samples were positioned using Differential GPS (DGPS), with accuracy within 1 meter. The polygon borders are based on the samples (spaced an average of 0.5 km apart) and the sidescan sonar data. The sediment type polygons represent the general trend, but local misinterpretations are possible.
Logical Consistency Report: No information provided.
Completeness Report: The data cover the Hudson River Estuary from the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge to Troy, with the exception of some areas shallower than 4m, which have not been surveyed and sampled completely.
Lineage:
Process Step:
Process Description: Processed bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sub-bottom tracks were loaded into ArcGIS. Polygons were drawn manually in ArcGIS around the areas with distinct different characteristics and each polygon was assigned a certain type based on its character. The sedimentary environment interpretation was based on the evaluation of the Chirp data in conjunction with the backscatter and bathymetry data. We distinguish the following classes: 1) Depositional environments are identified as regions with low backscatter that ideally can be seen overlying other strata. A clear example of a depositional environment is the site off Hook Mountain (A1) where Cesium measurements have confirmed the interpretation of recent sedimentation. This also includes the high backscatter deposits associated with tributary mouths (A2, A3). We have developed 4 distinct subclasses. 2) Erosional/Non-depositional environments are defined as sites with clearly truncated bedding in the Chirp data, outcrops of bedrock as in the Hudson Highlands or where other information, stratigraphic or radionuclides indicate non-depositional. We have developed 3 distinct erosional/non-depositional subclasses. 3) The identification of dynamic environments is based on the morphology and the backscatter data. Within the dynamic regions it is possible that both erosional and depositional processes are active. A clear example of a dynamic environment is the sediment waves/dunes prominent in the upper reaches of the Hudson River Estuary. As these features migrate both deposition and erosion are active. We have identified several major subclasses for the dynamic environment.
Process Date: Unknown
Spatial Data Organization Information:
Direct Spatial Reference Method: Vector
Point and Vector Object Information:
SDTS Terms Description:
SDTS Point and Vector Object Type: G-polygon
Point and Vector Object Count: 15
Spatial Reference Information:
Horizontal Coordinate System Definition:
Planar:
Grid Coordinate System:
Grid Coordinate System Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
Universal Transverse Mercator:
UTM Zone Number: 18
Transverse Mercator:
Scale Factor at Central Meridian: 0.999600
Longitude of Central Meridian: -75.000000
Latitude of Projection Origin: 0.000000
False Easting: 500000.000000
False Northing: 0.000000
Planar Coordinate Information:
Planar Coordinate Encoding Method: coordinate pair
Coordinate Representation:
Abscissa Resolution: 0.000512
Ordinate Resolution: 0.000512
Planar Distance Units: meters
Geodetic Model:
Horizontal Datum Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major Axis: 6378137.000000
Denominator of Flattening Ratio: 298.257222
Entity and Attribute Information:
Detailed Description:
Entity Type:
Entity Type Label: Sedimentary environment
Entity Type Definition: Region have a particular sedimentary environment, based on interpretation of sidescan sonar, bathymetry, and sub-bottom data.
Entity Type Definition Source: LDEO
Attribute:
Attribute Label: type
Attribute Definition: Sedimentary environment type based on interpretation of sidescan sonar, bathymetry, and sub-bottom data
Attribute Definition Source: LDEO
Attribute Domain Values:
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Deposition - thin
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: Low backscatter; Sub-bottom data shows thin (<50 cm) usually transparent layer of sediment accumulation
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Deposition - thick
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: Low backscatter; Sub-bottom data shows thick (>50 cm) usually transparent layer of sediment accumulation
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Deposition - over bedrock
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: Low backscatter; Sub-bottom data indicate bedrock underneath thin drape
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Deposition - unres. thickness
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: Low backscatter; Sub-bottom data are not available or not clear enough to identify thickness of layer
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Erosional - truncated
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: Sub-bottom data show indication of truncated stratigraphy outcropping on the river bottom. This class can only be identified where good sub-bottom data are available.
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Erosional - bedrock
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan data show bedrock outcropping at the surface. In general, no sub-bottom penetration.
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Erosional - non-deposition
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: Moderate to high backscatter; multibeam may show smooth or rough surface. Sub-bottom does not show any indication of recent drape or truncated reflections. Applies to areas where there is no clear indication of deposition or other dynamic classes. No 7Be radionuclides where analysis exists.
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Dynamic - waves
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: Regions with waves imaged with multibeam or sidescan
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Dynamic - scour
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: Typically located around obstacles such as bridge abutments. Moderate to high backscatter, rough surface in multibeam bathymetry. No penetration and/or rough surface in sub-bottom data.
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Dynamic - debris
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: Areas of complex morphology that includes small mounds of potential dumps or debris flow deposits. Often these areas show sign of scouring and sediment tails around individual features.
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Dynamic - lineation
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: These are bedforms that are parallel to the current in contrast to the waves/dunes, which are typically aligned perpendicular to the current. Examples of lineations with distinct topographic relief are found in the Highlands.
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Dynamic - drift
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: Regions characterized by deposition in the lee of obstacles. Often scour is also evident along the edges of obstacles so that regions of dynamic drift are characterized by both deposition and erosion.
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Dynamic - streaks
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: Features visible in the backscatter are aligned along the current but have not evident topographic relief. Examples of these features are associated with the Newburg Beacon Bridge (A2).
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Dynamic - slump
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: Features that are found a few times in the interpretation for example the slump structure along the edge of the channel adjacent to Catskill Creek, and the slide off of stony Point.
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Enumerated Domain:
Enumerated Domain Value: Unsurveyed
Enumerated Domain Value Definition: These regions are not classified due to lack of data coverage. These are generally the shallow regions that were not surveyed.
Enumerated Domain Value Definition Source: LDEO
Attribute:
Attribute Label: AREA
Attribute Definition: Area in square meters
Attribute Definition Source: LDEO
Attribute Domain Values:
Range Domain:
Range Domain Minimum: 0
Range Domain Maximum: unbounded
Distribution Information:
Distributor:
Contact Information:
Contact Organization Primary:
Contact Organization: Mann Library
Contact Address:
Address Type: mailing
Address: Cornell University
City: Ithaca
State or Province: NY
Postal Code: 14853
Country: USA
Contact Voice Telephone: 607-255-5406
Contact Electronic Mail Address: mann_ref@cornell.edu
Resource Description: 7884
Distribution Liability: Cornell University provides these geographic data "as is." Cornell University makes no guarantee or warranty concerning the accuracy of information contained in the geographic data. Cornell University further makes no warranty either expressed or implied, regarding the condition of the product or its fitness for any particular purpose. The burden for determining fitness for use lies entirely with the user. Although these files have been processed successfully on computers at Cornell University, no warranty is made by Cornell University regarding the use of these data on any other system, nor does the fact of distribution constitute or imply any such warranty.
Standard Order Process:
Digital Form:
Digital Transfer Information:
Format Name: ArcView Shapefile
File Decompression Technique: zip
Transfer Size: 1.37
Digital Transfer Option:
Online Option:
Computer Contact Information:
Network Address:
Network Resource Name: http://cugir.mannlib.cornell.edu/bucketinfo.jsp?id=7885
Fees: None
Metadata Reference Information:
Metadata Date: 20061025
Metadata Review Date: 20061025
Metadata Contact:
Contact Information:
Contact Organization Primary:
Contact Organization: Albert R. Mann Library
Contact Address:
Address Type: mailing and physical
Address: Cornell University
City: Ithaca
State or Province: New York
Postal Code: 14853
Contact Voice Telephone: 607-255-5406
Contact Electronic Mail Address: mann_ref@cornell.edu
Metadata Standard Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata Standard Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998