Space Radiation Risk Assessment

Metadata Updated: November 12, 2020

Project A: Integration and Review: A review of current knowledge from space radiation physics was accepted for publication in Reviews of Modern Physics (Durante and Cucinotta, 2011). Several Graphical Users Interface’s (GUI) of risk assessment models and computational tools were developed and published including: a) ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYTNRN Organ Dose); b) NSCR (NASA Space Cancer Risk) c) GERMCode (Galactic Cosmic Radiation, GCR, Event-based Risk Model); d) RITracks (Relativistic Ion Track Structure). The GERMcode was developed to accurately describe fragmentation in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) beam-line and biological samples, and basic radiobiology experiments.
Project B: Cancer Risk Projection Model and Uncertainties: New findings and knowledge from NSRL and other sources were used to revise the NASA’s risk model for space radiation cancer risks:
1) Revised values for low LET risk coefficients for tissue specific cancer incidence.
2) An analysis of lung cancer and other smoking attributable cancer risks for never-smokers show significantly reduced lung cancer risks as well as overall cancer risks for astronauts as compared to the risk estimated for the average U.S. population.
3) Derivation of track structure based radiation quality functions that depend on charge number, Z, and kinetic energy, E, in place of a dependence on LET alone. The assignment of a smaller maximum in the quality function for leukemia than for solid cancers.
4) Revised uncertainty assessments for all model coefficients in the risk model (physics, low LET risk coefficients, dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF), and quality factors), and an alternative uncertainty assessment that considers deviation from linear responses due to non-targeted effects (NTE).
Results of calculations for the average U.S. population show more restrictive dose limits for astronauts above age 40 y as compared to National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Report 132, and a modest narrowing of uncertainties if NTEs are not included and much broader uncertainties with NTEs. Risks for never-smokers compared to the average U.S. population are estimated in a mixture model to be reduced by more than 20% and 30% for males and females, respectively. A larger reduction is possible if purely multiplicative risk transfer is assumed.
Project C: Biochemical Kinetics Models of Molecular Pathways: A system biology model (Cucinotta et al., 2008) of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway was developed and used to make quantitative descriptions of the gamma H2AX foci and double strand break (DSB) rejoining experiments. The model is extended to consider the radiation quality dependence of the relative fraction of simple and complex DSB, rejoining and associated repair defects, and the kinetics of various radiation induced foci (RIF). In further work, the addition of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the MRN complex to the model was achieved and the role of processing damaged ends by the Artemis proteins is being modeled (Li and Cucinotta, 2011). The interaction of several growth factors with NHEJ components was studied, including the interaction of the growth factors EGFR, IGF1, and TGFbeta-Smad with ATM and DNA-PK. New approaches to Green’s functions for stochastic treatment of molecular diffusion processes were developed (Plante et al. 2011). Flow cytometry or immune-staining considers signals in individual cells and thus provides several unique capabilities to support computation modeling using stochastic approaches. In contrast, methods that average the values of many cells such as Western blots, gene arrays, etc. are limited in elucidating events at low dose where fluctuations are expected to be important. To improve our understanding of DNA repair complexes numerical approaches to simulate immunohistochemistry (Ponomarev et al., 2008,

Access & Use Information

Public: This dataset is intended for public access and use. License: No license information was provided. If this work was prepared by an officer or employee of the United States government as part of that person's official duties it is considered a U.S. Government Work.

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Metadata Created Date November 12, 2020
Metadata Updated Date November 12, 2020

Metadata Source

Harvested from NASA Data.json

Additional Metadata

Resource Type Dataset
Metadata Created Date November 12, 2020
Metadata Updated Date November 12, 2020
Publisher Space Technology Mission Directorate
Unique Identifier Unknown
Identifier TECHPORT_23619
Data First Published 2013-08-01
Data Last Modified 2020-01-29
Public Access Level public
Bureau Code 026:00
Metadata Context
Metadata Catalog ID
Schema Version
Catalog Describedby
Homepage URL
Program Code 026:027
Source Datajson Identifier True
Source Hash b52415a0f63a29e713d70b7ed9a7197a6e081b59
Source Schema Version 1.1

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