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Kosovo - Labor Force & Time Use Survey

Metadata Updated: February 10, 2021

The MCC Kosovo LFTUS is designed to answer nine research questions. The first five were identified in the RFQ, whereas the remaining four were added after MCC held additional stakeholder workshops in Pristina.

  1. What is the true level of employment (formal and informal), underemployment or vulnerable employment, and unemployment, disaggregated by gender and district? How much time have the un- or under-employed spent looking for a job? Are they an entrepreneur?
  2. Is there a relationship between field of study and having employment? How many people are employed in the field that they studied? Are there any correlations between certain fields of study or location and unemployment?
  3. For people not looking for jobs, why are they not looking?
  4. What are people doing with their time? Especially, what are women or the unemployed doing with their time? How much time is spent on child care and elder care? How much time is spent commuting?
  5. How does receiving remittances and/or the ability to work abroad impact labor market decisions?
  6. How do attitudes about women's place in family and society influence women's participation in the labor market?
  7. How is women's engagement in productive activities (like starting a business) related to ownership and ability to control assets/access to credit?
  8. Have discriminatory practices in hiring or while employed, or perceptions that there might be such practices, discouraged women from seeking jobs?
  9. What are the factors that inhibit entrepreneurship, especially for women vs. men, and lead to the low levels of entrepreneurial activity for men and/or women?

The research team administered a nationally and regionally representative household survey to answer these nine questions. A stratified two-stage probability sampling plan was used, with primary sampling units as census enumeration areas and secondary sampling units as households. The survey was cross-sectional, with data collection occurring over a 16-week period between March and August of 2017.

An overview of findings is as follows:

With 41.1% of the working age population employed at the time of the survey, Kosovo compares poorly with other countries in the region as well as comparably-sized economies in the world. The economic situation, however, is worse than the aggregate statistic suggests. Almost half of Kosovo's population is economically inactive, one in five households receives a significant amount of its income from remittances, and the economy is largely dependent on the public sector, which supports one out of four jobs. Involuntary underemployment is endemic, with 78.9% of part-time workers reporting an inability to find full-time labor, and vulnerable employment (self-employed with no employees and unpaid family workers) accounting for nearly one third of total jobs. Furthermore, while rural and urban areas have broadly comparable employment rates at the national level, 27.8% of employed persons in rural areas reported being unpaid family workers. Lastly, Kosovo employment is largely characterized by low-quality jobs; 30.2% of jobs were in what the ILO labels elementary occupations, followed by services and sales workers (13.1%), with few technicians and associate professionals.

A high proportion of unemployed individuals, one-third, are characterized by long term unemployment (duration of unemployment being more than 12 months), with an average unemployment duration of 18.8 months. Overall, poor labor market conditions are most commonly reported as reasons for unemployment, though there is a strong gendered dynamic to this phenomenon. Entrepreneurship is limited (8.5% participation rate) and heavily dependent on personal resources and savings for start-up capital. Unsurprisingly, the biggest obstacle to business growth is identified as lack of financial means, which is evident from the fact that most business are started with personal resources.

Across all labor market metrics, female participation is much lower than that of males. Females are half as likely to be employed, twice as likely to be inactive, one fourth as likely to be entrepreneurs, 227% more likely to report being unpaid family workers, and, according to time use data, invest almost five more hours a day performing household and family care than men. Whether due to cultural or economic factors, females also wield much less decision-making power within the household. Males dominated decision-making power over household expenditures, were more likely to own every type of household asset, and were fourteen times more likely to be the sole decision maker for undertaking household debt. Although youth represent a valuable economic asset, with an employment rate of only 27.7%, their potential remains underutilized. This is particularly the case for young females, for whom only one in six is employed.

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Public: This dataset is intended for public access and use. License: See this page for license information.

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Metadata Created Date November 12, 2020
Metadata Updated Date February 10, 2021

Metadata Source

Additional Metadata

Resource Type Dataset
Metadata Created Date November 12, 2020
Metadata Updated Date February 10, 2021
Publisher Millennium Challenge Corporation
Unique Identifier Unknown
Identifier DDI-MCC-KOS-LFTUS-2017-v03
Data Last Modified 2018-04-27
Public Access Level public
Bureau Code 184:03
Metadata Context
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Harvest Source Id 23cd936b-e509-46f3-af7f-71c4ab01a514
Harvest Source Title MCC Data.json
Homepage URL
Program Code 184:000
Source Datajson Identifier True
Source Hash f20288448a1a49d77164d5f63d7e7c5eb71044af
Source Schema Version 1.1

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