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Great Smoky Mountains Naitonal Park Elk Management Zones

Metadata Updated: February 12, 2024

Elk use a variety of habitats, but a mix of forest and openings, dominated by grass and herbaceous plants, is ideal. Elk also use forest openings, glades and woodland habitats. Since the mid-1990’s habitat management on public lands and other properties in and around the restoration zone have created habitat that is conducive to numerous wildlife species, including elk. The number of elk that can be supported in any given management zone is influenced by many factors, including weather, habitat quality, predation, hunter harvest, and the need to minimize elk-based crop and property damage (agricultural impacts). One or more of these “limiting” factors can often prevent an elk herd from growing further or limit the ability of wildlife managers to maintain current elk herd numbers. For each proposed elk zone, park staff identified the limiting factors using flight surveys, elk population trends over 10 or more years, changes to available habitat, reported agricultural impacts (crop and property damage), known or suspected causes of elk mortality, assessments of predator populations and predation impacts, and other data and elk management experience. The severity of each identified limiting factor was classified as low, moderate, or high. Limiting factors common to most park elk populations are predation and habitat. Severity of these limiting factors varies across the park and even within zones.

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Public: This dataset is intended for public access and use. License: No license information was provided. If this work was prepared by an officer or employee of the United States government as part of that person's official duties it is considered a U.S. Government Work.

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Metadata Created Date June 1, 2023
Metadata Updated Date February 12, 2024

Metadata Source

Harvested from DOI EDI

Additional Metadata

Resource Type Dataset
Metadata Created Date June 1, 2023
Metadata Updated Date February 12, 2024
Publisher National Park Service
Identifier NPS_DataStore_2268415
Data First Published 2020-01-11T12:00:00Z
Data Last Modified 2020-01-11
Category geospatial
Public Access Level public
Bureau Code 010:24
Metadata Context
Metadata Catalog ID
Schema Version
Catalog Describedby
Data Quality True
Harvest Object Id 34ffc4f9-d95b-43cb-8aba-bc116ff8efd8
Harvest Source Id 52bfcc16-6e15-478f-809a-b1bc76f1aeda
Harvest Source Title DOI EDI
Homepage URL
Metadata Type geospatial
Old Spatial -84.01389,35.4269066,-82.99805,35.8414
Program Code 010:118, 010:119
Publisher Hierarchy White House > U.S. Department of the Interior > National Park Service
Related Documents,,,
Source Datajson Identifier True
Source Hash d5a15ab7b3cdbd0443a99ee4bbf96d4adfd2bb6f9cedc682d9230e5bc0d785d8
Source Schema Version 1.1
Spatial {"type": "Polygon", "coordinates": -84.01389, 35.4269066, -84.01389, 35.8414, -82.99805, 35.8414, -82.99805, 35.4269066, -84.01389, 35.4269066}

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