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Galactic cosmic radiation induces stable epigenome alterations relevant to human lung cancer

Metadata Updated: December 6, 2023

Human deep space and planetary travel is limited by uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and in particular the high linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ion component. Here we assessed the impact of two high-LET ions 56Fe and 28Si and low-LET X rays on genome-wide methylation patterns in human bronchial epithelial cells. We found that all three radiation types induced rapid and stable changes in DNA methylation but at distinct subsets of CpG sites affecting different chromatin compartments. The 56Fe ions induced mostly hypermethylation and primarily affected sites in open chromatin regions including enhancers promoters and edges ( shores ) of CpG islands. The 28Si ion-exposure had mixed effects inducing both hyper and hypomethylation and affecting sites in more repressed heterochromatic environments whereas X rays induced mostly hypomethylation primarily at sites in gene bodies and intergenic regions. Significantly the methylation status of 56Fe ion irradiation sensitive sites but not those affected by X ray or 28Si ions could discriminate tumor from normal tissue for human lung adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Thus high LET radiation exposure leaves a lasting imprint on the epigenome and affects sites relevant to human lung cancer. The 56Fe ion signature may prove useful in monitoring the cumulative biological impact and associated cancer risks encountered by astronauts in deep space. Genome wide DNA methylation profiling of normal human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with varying doses of 28Si-ion radiation ( 300 MeV/u at 0 0.3 1.0 Gy) 56Fe-ion radiation (600 MeV/u at 0 0.1 0.3 1.0 Gy) or X rays (320 kV at 0 1.0 Gy). Triplicate control and irradiated samples were incubated and sampled at 4 timepoints between 2 and 62 days. The Illumina Infinium 450k Human DNA methylation Beadchip was used to obtain DNA methylation profiles across >485,000 CpGs from collected samples. Samples include: 56Fe ions 4 doses x 4 time points x 3 replicates (4 removed in QC) = 44 samples; 28Si ions = 3 doses x 4 time points x 3 replicates = 36 samples; X ray 2 doses x 4 time points x 3 replicates (2 removed in QC)= 22 samples. Overall design: Bisulphite converted DNA from the 102 samples were hybridized to the Illumina Infinium 450k Human Methylation Beadchip.

Access & Use Information

Public: This dataset is intended for public access and use. License: us-pd

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Metadata Created Date January 31, 2023
Metadata Updated Date December 6, 2023
Data Update Frequency irregular

Metadata Source

Harvested from NASA Data.json

Additional Metadata

Resource Type Dataset
Metadata Created Date January 31, 2023
Metadata Updated Date December 6, 2023
Publisher National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Identifier nasa_genelab_GLDS-317_aty7-t2rv
Data First Published 2021-05-21
Data Last Modified 2023-01-26
Category Earth Science
Public Access Level public
Data Update Frequency irregular
Bureau Code 026:00
Metadata Context
Metadata Catalog ID
Schema Version
Catalog Describedby
Harvest Object Id 04155049-68a0-450a-9a5a-35f51a43f6f5
Harvest Source Id 58f92550-7a01-4f00-b1b2-8dc953bd598f
Harvest Source Title NASA Data.json
Homepage URL
Program Code 026:005
Source Datajson Identifier True
Source Hash 7402c769b3fcd1004fca9691c86bd939dd2141fe413cd87490161d5a9238dad3
Source Schema Version 1.1

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