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Comparison of four bacteriophages exposed to chlorine on stainless steel

Metadata Updated: June 25, 2024

The 2014 West African Ebola virus disease outbreak was the largest to date, and conflicting, chlorine-­based surface disinfection protocols to interrupt disease transmission were recommended. We identified only one study documenting surface disinfection efficacy against the Ebola virus, showing a >6.6 log reduction after 5­-minute exposure to 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) based on small­-scale tests (Cook et al. (2015)). In preparation for future extensive, large­-scale disinfection efficacy experiments, we replicated the Cook et al. experiment using four potential BSL­-1 surrogates selected based on similarities to the Ebola virus: bacteriophages MS2, M13, Phi6, and PR772. Each bacteriophage was exposed to 0.1% and 0.5% NaOCl for 1, 5, and 10 minutes on stainless steel. MS2 and M13 were only reduced by 3.4 log and 3.5 log after a 10-­minute exposure to 0.5% NaOCl, and would be overly conservative surrogates. Conversely, PR772 was too easily inactivated for surrogate use, as it was reduced by >4.8 log after only 1­-minute exposure to 0.5% NaOCl. Phi6 was slightly more resistant than the Ebola virus, with 4.1 log reduction after a 5­-minute exposure and not detected after a 10-­minute exposure to 0.5% NaOCl. We therefore recommend Phi6 as a surrogate for evaluating the efficacy of chlorine-­based surface disinfectants against the Ebola virus.

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Metadata Created Date November 10, 2020
Metadata Updated Date June 25, 2024

Metadata Source

Harvested from USAID JSON

Additional Metadata

Resource Type Dataset
Metadata Created Date November 10, 2020
Metadata Updated Date June 25, 2024
Data First Published 2020-03-05
Data Last Modified 2024-06-25
Category Other Public Health Threats
Public Access Level public
Bureau Code 184:15
Metadata Context
Metadata Catalog ID
Schema Version
Catalog Describedby
Harvest Object Id 343585ac-4bef-4d68-a4db-7743a9bf5f52
Harvest Source Id 0aeddf52-9cb0-4ab6-bc1f-b53172fe5348
Harvest Source Title USAID JSON
Homepage URL
Program Code 184:034
Source Datajson Identifier True
Source Hash 8726c334cd6a7c1c0d965a19d81d186b6dc6f0b7a29e35de00c984bd188b0a78
Source Schema Version 1.1

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