Adaptive Management of Invasive Forest Plants - Forest Invasives Adaptive Management (FIAM)

Metadata Updated: October 9, 2019

This project provides guidance for conducting adaptive management of invasive species including inventories, prioritization, and treatment effectiveness monitoring at multiple stations within a region. In 2007, invasive species were the top threat listed in the National Wildlife Refuge System Threats and Conflicts Database. Approximately 2.4 million acres of National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) lands were impacted by invasive plants. In 2009-2010, the Eastern Broadleaf Forest Biological Network began developing an invasive plant adaptive management project on six National Wildlife Refuges in southern Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri, and the six refuges surveyed to assess the state of invasive species on their respective refuges. Additionally, several refuges began managing invasive species using a suite of management techniques that were selected prior to the 2010 field season.

This project is developing a structured, iterative framework for managing invasive plants that targets our primary area of uncertainty, effectiveness of management actions, and reduces uncertainty over time. We addressed this problem at two scales, the refuge scale and a management grid scale (e.g., a square grid of 1 ha overlaid on each refuge), and formalized a step-by-step process for prioritizing the location of actions at the refuge scale and applying management actions at the grid scale. We developed an objectives hierarchy with clearly stated objectives derived from refuge management plans to help us link our data collection with those objectives. We developed social and ecological objectives and our fundamental ecological objectives are 1) preserving biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health and 2) improving habitat for trust species (e.g. migratory birds). An inventory protocol at the refuge scale and monitoring protocol at the grid scale have been developed pilot tested from 2011-2014 and are undergoing review under the inventory and monitoring policy (FWS 701 2) as regional protocol frameworks.

Both protocols were structured to allow data collection that efficiently incorporates with decision tools at both scales. The inventory protocol estimates the state of invasion to prioritize the location of management effort across the refuges, and the monitoring protocol evaluates the effectiveness of management actions at the grid scale. Both inventory and monitoring provide a feedback loop to inform decision tools at each scale to guide future management. The inventory approach of this project was tailored to situations in which it would be difficult to detect invasive plants, and other approaches may be more applicable when invasive plants are easier to detect (e.g., Phragmites sp.). The monitoring approach should be widely applicable to many invasive plants. A prioritization model based on data collected by the inventory protocol and spatial data layers (e.g., boundaries, roads, trails, streams) was developed in 2012 and an ArcGIS tool is available to implement the model. The project participants participated in a series of elicitation exercises in 2013-2014 to define objective weights, management actions, state utilities and initial transition matrices to form the basis of the adaptive management model. These model components are currently being combined and implemented in a stochastic dynamic programming framework that will generate a policy table with management recommendations for all refuge grid cells.

This project has become known as Forest Invasives Adaptive Management (FIAM). A peer-reviewed overview of FIAM is available in Lesmeister et al. (2014). The current project coordinator is Joshua Booker, zone biologist, Region 3, Refuges, Division of Biological Resources,, 419-898-0014 x25. The project's SharePoint website ( is only open to FWS employees and selected FWS partners.

Access & Use Information

Public: This dataset is intended for public access and use. License: No license information was provided. If this work was prepared by an officer or employee of the United States government as part of that person's official duties it is considered a U.S. Government Work.

Downloads & Resources




Metadata Created Date April 30, 2019
Metadata Updated Date October 9, 2019

Metadata Source

Harvested from DOI CKAN Harvest Source

Additional Metadata

Resource Type Dataset
Metadata Created Date April 30, 2019
Metadata Updated Date October 9, 2019
Publisher Fish and Wildlife Service
Unique Identifier FWS_ServCat_37545
Brent Frakes
Maintainer Email
Public Access Level public
Bureau Code 010:18
Metadata Context
Metadata Catalog ID C:\Program Files (x86)\FWS\DataStore\Application\OpenData\FWS_ServCat_v1_1.json
Schema Version
Catalog Describedby
Extras Rollup {"harvest_source_id": "34ce571b-cb98-4e0b-979f-30f9ecc452c5", "issued": "2011-03-01", "resource-type": "Dataset", "references": "\"\", \"\"", "source_hash": "e907f933372458c0e31035f5cf3693e426a29a93", "accessLevel": "public", "theme": "\"Project\"", "spatial": "-95.2863541,36.93549,-83.86393,43.481205", "catalog_conformsTo": "", "catalog_@context": "", "catalog_describedBy": "", "harvest_source_title": "DOI CKAN Harvest Source", "source_schema_version": "1.1", "programCode": "010:094", "010:028", "bureauCode": "010:18", "landingPage": "", "harvest_object_id": "e87d2888-dad0-4503-a7df-bc21038fb4d5", "publisher": "Fish and Wildlife Service", "modified": "2011-03-01", "source_datajson_identifier": "true", "catalog_@id": "C:\\Program Files (x86)\\FWS\\DataStore\\Application\\OpenData\\FWS_ServCat_v1_1.json", "identifier": "FWS_ServCat_37545"}
Harvest Object Id 07f29750-a43e-46f4-87e7-afaf6b2205e5
Harvest Source Id 34ce571b-cb98-4e0b-979f-30f9ecc452c5
Harvest Source Title DOI CKAN Harvest Source
Data First Published 2011-03-01
Homepage URL
Data Last Modified 2011-03-01
Program Code 010:094, 010:028
Related Documents "", ""
Source Datajson Identifier true
Source Hash e907f933372458c0e31035f5cf3693e426a29a93
Source Schema Version 1.1
Spatial -95.2863541,36.93549,-83.86393,43.481205
Category "Project"

Didn't find what you're looking for? Suggest a dataset here.